Posts Tagged ‘install’

Inconsistent Upgrade Behavior on Software-Mirrored RAID Volumes

Thursday, August 8th, 2013

It came up again recently, so this post is to warn folks treading the same path in the near future. First a little ‘brass tacks’ background: As you probably know, as of 10.7 Lion’s Mac App Store-only distribution, you can choose the option to extract the InstallESD.dmg from the Install Mac OS X (insert big cat name here) application, and avoid duplicitous downloads and manual Apple ID logins. One could even automate the process on a network that supports NetInstall with a redundantly named NetInstall set to essentially ‘virtualize’ or serve up the installer app on the network.

We’ve found recently that more than a few environments are just getting around to upgrading after taking a ‘wait and see’ approach to Lion, and jumping straight to 10.8 Mountain Lion. Getting to the meat after all this preamble… it was also, at one time, considered best practice to use RAID to mirror the boot disk, even without a hardware card to remove the CPU overhead. (It hadn’t been considered a factor then, but even modern storage virtualization *cough*Drobo*cough* can perform… poorly. I personally recommend what I call a ‘lazy mirror’, having CCC clone the volume and putting less writes on the disk over time, and getting the redundancy of CCC reporting SMART status of the source and destination.)

When upgrading a software-mirror’d boot drives OS, you get a message about features been unavailable, namely FileVault2 and the Recovery Partition it relies upon. If it detects the machine being upgraded is running (a relic of a bygone era, a separate OS called quaintly) ‘Mac OS X Server,’ it additionally warns that the server functionality will be suspended until 2.x can be installed via… the Mac App Store. We’ve found it can do an upgrade of those paused services(at least those that are still provided by the 2.2.1 version of the Server application) and pick up where it left off without incident after being installed and launched.

If, however, you use a Mac App Store-downloaded application to perform the process, we’ve seen higher success rates of a stable upgrade. If instead you tried to save time with either the InstallESD.dmg or NetInstall set methods mentioned earlier, a failure symptom occurred that, post-update, the disk would never complete its first boot(verbose boot was not conclusive as to reasons, either.) Moving the application bundle to another machine(volume license codes have, of course, been applied to the appropriate AppleID on the machines designated for upgrades,) hasn’t been as successful, although the recommended repackaging of the Install app, as Apple has referred to in certain documentation, wasn’t attempted this particular time. In some cases even breaking the software mirror didn’t allow the disk to complete an upgrade successfully. Another symptom before we could tell it was going to fail is the drop-down sheet warning of the loss of server functionality would immediately cause the entire window to lose focus while about to initiate the update. A radar has not been filed due to the fact that a supported(albeit semi time-intensive) method exists and as been more consistently successful.

Configure network printers via command line on Macs

Wednesday, December 26th, 2012

In a recent Twitter conversation with other folks supporting Macs we discussed ways to programmatically deploy printers. Larger environments that have a management solution like JAMF Software’s Casper can take advantage of its ability to capture printer information and push to machines. Smaller environments, though, may only have Apple Remote Desktop or even nothing at all.

Because Mac OS X incorporates CUPS printing, administrators can utilize the lpadmin and lpoptions command line tools to programmatically configure new printers for users.


A basic command for configuring a new printer using lpadmin looks something like this:

lpadmin -p "salesbw" -v "lpd://" -D "Sales B&W" -L "2nd floor print center" -P "/Library/Printers/PPDs/Contents/Resources/HP LaserJet 8150 Series.gz" -E

Several options follow the lpadmin command:

  • -p = Printer name (queue name if sharing the printer)
  • -v = IP address or DNS name of the printer
  • -D = Description of the printer (appears in the Printers list)
  • -L = Location of the printer
  • -P = Path the the printer PPD file
  • -E = Enable this printer

The result of running this command in the Terminal application as an administrator looks like this:

New printer


Advanced printer models may have duplex options, multiple trays, additional memory or special features such as stapling or binding. Consult the printer’s guide or its built-in web page for a list of these installed printer features.

After installing a test printer, use the lpoptions command with the -l option in the Terminal to “list” the feature names from the printer:

lpoptions -p "salesbw" -l

The result is usually a long list of features that may look something like:

HPOption_Tray4/Tray 4: True *False
HPOption_Tray5/Tray 5: True *False
HPOption_Duplexer/Duplex Unit: True *False
HPOption_Disk/Printer Disk: *None RAMDisk HardDisk
HPOption_Envelope_Feeder/Envelope Feeder: True *False

Each line is an option. The first line above displays the option for Tray 4 and shows the default setting is False. If the printer has the optional Tray 4 drawer installed then enable this option when running the lpadmin command by following it with:

-o HPOption_Tray4=True

Be sure to use the option name to the left of the slash not the friendly name with spaces after the slash.

To add the duplex option listed on the third line add:

-o HPOption_Duplexer=True

And to add the envelope feeder option listed on the fifth line add:

-o HPOption_Envelope_Feeder=True

Add as many options as necessary by stringing them together at the end of the lpadmin command:

lpadmin -p "salesbw" -v "lpd://" -D "Sales B&W" -L "2nd floor print center" -P "/Library/Printers/PPDs/Contents/Resources/HP LaserJet 8150 Series.gz" -E -o HPOption_Tray4=True -o HPOption_Duplexer=True -o HPOption_Envelope_Feeder=True

The result of running the lpadmin command with the -o options enables these available features when viewing the Print & Scan preferences:

Printer options

With these features enabled for the printer in Print & Scan, they also appear as selectable items in all print dialogs:

Printer dialog


Install Powerchute Using a Script

Friday, February 11th, 2011

Here’s a little shell script that can be deployed from ARD to install and configure APC’s Powerchute Network software for Mac OS X clients. It’s currently only been tested with 2.2.4, but was used it to deploy Powerchute to 7 servers and can be quite a time saver. The only prereq is that the APC tar file be located at the path specified by variable ‘apcfile’ and the other variables in the script be completed.

Let us know if you have any questions!

### sends keystrokes to configure APC Powerchute software.


## start script
mkdir /tmp/apc_temp &> /dev/null
cd /tmp/apc_temp
tar -xf "$apcfile"

## get our IP
IP="$(ifconfig $nictoregister | awk '/inet / {print $2}' | head -1)"

open /tmp/apc_temp/install.command
sleep 3

osascript < tell application "System Events"
keystroke "$localadminpassword"
delay .2
keystroke return
delay 2
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke "$apcip"
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke "$IP"
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke space
delay 1
keystroke "$apcadmin"
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke "$apcpassword"
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke "$apcsharedsecret"
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke tab
delay .1
keystroke space

end tell

Remote 10.5 Mac OS X Server Installations

Friday, April 4th, 2008

This setup works best if there is a Boot and Data partition.

Coordinate to have an onsite person during the install(able to follow directions and semi-technical if possible).

Check all install requirements such as Processor usage and RAM ( 10.5 requires 1GB to install)

Backup all boot drive settings if it is not a clean install (i.e. Retrospect, Kerio directory, store etc )

If you have access to take over system’s mouse and keyboard:

Enable port forward port 22 (Secure Shell) to a internal workstation. Enable the 318admin on that system ( Desktop , not Laptop ) Install the server admin tools on that workstation (Must 10.5 Server version i.e. 10.5 ) Verify Sleep is disabled on workstation in Energy Setting


localhost#2xCPUFormat# OS X Server 10.5#RDY4PkgInstall#4.0#512

Create a tunnel on from your localhost:5901 to the remote DVD installer via the workstation you “piggy back” workstation off of

ssh -L 5901/ -Nv

File > “Add by Address” enter in : Leave the username blank Enter in password: G84214S0

You now will be able to control the Boot Operating System

Set colors down to greyscale ( less CPU load on Install Disc)

If you would rather let the workstation’s user continue to work ( make sure they are told not shut down their system) Of if you would rather not have to change the port forwards after the fact for 5900:

FileMaker Server 9.0.2 PHP on Windows

Tuesday, December 4th, 2007

The version of the PHP API that shipped with FMS 9.0v1 is configured to expire, as did the 8.0 Public Beta of the PHP API. The 9.0v2 updater includes a new version of the stand-alone PHP API that fixes this bug, but the installer does not automatically place it where it needs to go — you have to do so manually. You can find the PHP API Standalone package here:

C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Server\Web Publishing\

Just uncompress that and replace the existing PHP API on that machine with it.

Time Navigator Installation Checklist

Monday, November 26th, 2007

This document will be followed up by a document with more detailed instructions for each checkbox.

Client management [ ] Talk to the client to verify the SOW from ATEMPO [ ] Discuss the amount of data and retention policies.

Preflight [ ] Verify host name of server and clients. [ ] Verify hardware. [ ] Verify version. Time Navigator gets new revisions quite often, check with your Atempo point of contact to make sure you have the latest version.


[ ] Atempo license email should have been sent to the client contact. [ ] Log into the Atempo license web site to the point where it asks for the host id. [ ] Log in to the computer as root. [all installations should be done as root, enable the root user if you need to] [ ] Run the License Manager Installation. [ ] Copy and paste the host id into the license web site [ ] Generate and download license key. [ ] Indicate the license key file in the License manager installer. [ ] Run Time Navigator installer. [ ] Designate the environment name. usually tina [ ] Designate ports. default to 2525 and 2526 [ ] When installation is complete restart the computer [ ] Start the Atempo launcher. [ ] Start “The Configurator” [ ] Create initial catalog. [ ] Detect attached tape drives and libraries. [ ] Start Tina Administrative console [ ] Run diagnostic test on all physical Drives [ ] Create VLS libraries [ if necessary ] [ ] Create tape Pools

Set up Agents on Back up clients [ ] Install initial agent. [ ] create package installer. [ ] deploy package to remaining agents [ ] install remaining non Mac OS X computers [ ] add agents as hosts. [ ] Create back up classes [ ] Create back up strategies [ ] run test back ups [ ] run restore tests [ ] Customize tina install to features of the client

Addendum :: Replication [ ] Select the host to be the source of replication [ ] Select Platform > Application > Filesystem [ ] Create back up class on new Application icon [ ] Create strategy with replication activated [ ] create destination within the strategy

Completion [ ] Review the SOW from Atempo with the Client [ ] Train the client on how to monitor backups.

Installing Lithium on Mac OS X

Thursday, November 1st, 2007

Installing Lithium Core 4.9.0 Make sure the system is not currently a web server and port 80 is available. Download the Lithium 4.9.0 package. Double-click on the Core 4.9.0 Installer. Click Continue through the license agreement screens. Choose the packages to install and click on Continue. Choose the location to install the Lithium Core application and click on Install. Enter the credentials of an administrator and Click OK. When the installer is complete, click on the Close button. Open Lithium Core Admin from the /Applications folder. Click Next and enter the name of the client for whom you are installing Lithium. Click Next and enter a new administrative username and password for accessing Lithium. Click Next and you will be placed into the database configuration screen. Unless you are using PostgreSQL on another host, do not modify these settings. Click Next and double-check the settings. If they look good then click on the Finish button and enter administrative credentials to commit the changes. When you open Lithium Console from the /Applications folder for the first time you will be asked whether you would like to check for updates each time. Click Yes. You have now installed Lithium and can move on to adding hosts to be monitored.

Leopard: Custom Installations

Thursday, October 25th, 2007

Installing Mac OS X is a fairly simple task to complete and can typically take up to an hour or more depending on the installation options you choose. However, you should review all of your options in the installer as many items are not needed unless you have a specific need for them. Installing any operating system involves choices, which we will reveal throughout this chapter. If you are reinstalling your operating system, just make sure to have a valid backup before you continue on with this chapter.

The Installation Process Installing Mac OS X requires little of a user other than agreeging to the license agreement, known as an EEULA and being able to click on continue. Many of the choices available during installation can be left at their default settings. The system will simply guide you in many cases allowing you to click Continue or Agree at most of the dialog boxes and obtain a default installing. But the power user knows better and wants to be up and running as quickly as possible. The power user wants to leave out any of the items from the operating system that they’re not going to use and the power user is going to want a level of control over what is on their system that can’t be had by doing a default installation.

Also, until the system starts the Checking Disk process, which it will do in order to verify your installation media, you can stop the installation and go back to the operating system you had before. Of course, if you reformat a drive going back to your operating system will no longer be an option. Note: You can access Disk Utility while booted to the CD in order to partition your hard drive, but if you plan on using Boot Camp to install Windows onto a partition then you will need to leave your system with one partition.

The installation process takes users through a variety of steps to help choose which parts of the operating system to install. At most of the stages, you will be able to click on the default value and proceed without actually customizing anything. However, you will see a Customize button at many of the screens that can be used to

Note: Each version of OS X will have a slightly different installation process. This article is written for OS X 10.5. However, if you are using a previous version then while some of the screens will be similar do not expect them all to be the same.

Installing an Operating System onto an External Drive
When you install OS X you can choose to install it on any drive that is visible to your computer. This can be a USB jump drive, a FireWire hard drive or an Xserve RAID. There are a variety of reasons why you would use any of these as a boot medium rather than your internal drive. Whether the reason is portability, drive size, redundancy or performance, Apple has given us a lot of options by allowing the installation of the operating system on any medium the computer can access that doesn’t require special drivers. • USB jump drive: Placing a customized and very trimmed down operating system onto a USB jump drive can provide you with the ability to have a quick and easy way to troubleshoot any computer in your pocket at any time. The size of a USB jump drive makes it a good choice for people just looking to • FireWire: Firewire hard drives are becoming more and more inexpensive with each passing year. These portable drives can allow you to take your files with you anywhere. But they’re not as good for using as a full time operating system. They are great for carting around installers, using as targets for your backups and it never hurts to an operating system on to use for troubleshooting. • Internal RAID 0: A RAID is a random array of independent disks, or disks that have been combined for a specified outcome. RAID 0 disks are particularly helpful with increasing performance and obtaining a larger drive than what is possible without using a RAID. Computers with an operating system installed on a RAID 0 will receive a slight speed increase, but if either drive fails then you risk loosing all of the data on the volume. • Internal RAID 1: A RAID 1 disk set is also known as a mirror. In a mirrored disk set, if any single drive fails then all of the data is also located on the second drive. There is a slight reduction in speed for RAID 1 volumes. • Internal RAID 5: Apple recently released a card that allows for using 3 internal drives to create a RAID 5 volume. RAID 5 allows for redundancy as is found with RAID 1 and a larger volume as is found in RAID 0 with an offset in the speed decrease. • Xserve RAID: The Xserve RAID can be connected to a computer through a fibre cable and allows for a single volume size of up to 10 terabytes.

Once you have your drives ready to install onto you will want to choose whether to do an upgrade or a new installation. If you are coming from a previous version of Mac OS X or having problems with your existing installation then you will likely want to do an Archive and Install. If you are working on Mac OS X Server you will likely need to do a format prior to installation. Once you have chosen which of these you will be doing then click on the Next and get ready to customize your installation. At this point you will be able to click on the Custom… icon and choose which parts of the OS to install. Don’t worry, if you leave anything out that you later decide you would like you can always go to the installation CD and install it as a package manually.

Now, click Install and you’re off to the races.

Migrating CommuniGate Pro Mail Servers

Wednesday, September 12th, 2007

Communigate is a great mail server that is probably one of the easiest programs to move to another server. This is due to the fact that all it’s information is stored in flat files that you simply have to move from one place to another to activate or deactivate. If only Exchange was this easy!

The following is an overview of the steps involved in migrating a Communigate server from one OSX host to another. These are the 3 basic steps

1. Backup the Communigate settings and user databases 2. Install Communigate onto the new machine 3. Unpack and move the communigate files to the appropriate location

Here is a detailed step-by-step way to move a communigate install from one machine to another.

1. On the original mail server open a terminal and become root > sudo su

2. Next we should stop the CGServer so that it isn’t writing to the files as we back them up. Note: those are backticks below NOT single quotes. The backtick is usually left of the number 1 on the keyboard > kill `cat /var/Communigate/ProcessID`

3. Now we backup the files. This command places the archive at the root of the boot drive. > tar -zcvf /CommunigateBackup.tar.gz /var/Communigate

4. Copy CommunigateBackup.tar.gz to the new machine any way you please. I’ll use scp here. > scp /CommunigateBackup.tar.gz 318admin@newmailhost.local:/

5. Go to the new machine, open a terminal, become root and unpack the archive > sudo su > tar -zxvf /CommunigateBackup.tar.gz

6. Install the same communigate version as was on the the old box and reboot. It MAY work without the same version but I don’t recommend it. If you don’t know the version that was running on the old server, maybe it crashed, you can find out by running this command: > grep SYSTEM /Communigate/SystemLogs/* | grep started | awk ‘{print $5}’ | sort | uniq

7. Once the server is installed we should stop it so that there isn’t any file corruption while we restore. > kill `cat /var/Communigate/ProcessID`

8. Now we remove the current empty installation of communigate > cd /var > rm -rf CommuniGate Or if you’re like me and don’t like to rm -rf stuff as root > mv CommuniGate Communigate.old

9. Now simply move the backed up database to it’s intended destination > mv /CommuniGate /var/

10. Reboot and you’re done! You’ll notice that everything copies over, the license, the accounts, the passwords. This can be done in about 15 minutes once you get the hang of it!

Installing Mac OS X Server 10.4 On A Mac Mini

Friday, September 7th, 2007

Retail copies of Mac OS X Server 10.4 (for PowerPC-based Macs) and Mac OS X Server 10.4.7 Universal (for PowerPC-based and Intel-based Macs) can be used to upgrade Mac OS X 10.4.x client installations to server installations. The process is a “Meta-package” upgrade and is described in this article.

Performing a Meta-package upgrade on Mac OS X 10.4.10 or later clients

Mac OS X Server 10.4.x (PowerPC or Universal) install discs cannot perform a Meta-package client upgrade on clients which have already been updated to Mac OS X 10.4.10 or later.

To workaround this issue, download MacOSXServerInstall.dmg. The package can be downloaded here. The requirements and installation process to use MacOSXServerInstall.dmg are detailed below:

Requirements -A Mac with Mac OS X 10.4.10 or later (client) installed that you wish to upgrade to -Mac OS X Server 10.4.x. -Mac OS X Server 10.4 installation DVD (to upgrade PowerPC-based Macs). -Mac OS X Server 10.4.7 Universal installation DVD (to upgrade Intel-based Macs).

Installation 1. On the client computer you will be upgrading, download MacOSXServerInstall.dmg from here. 2. Double-click the downloaded MacOSXServerInstall.dmg file to mount the disk image in the Finder. 3. Insert the appropriate Mac OS X Server installer disc. 4. Double-click MacOSXServerInstall.mpkg in the Mac OS X Server Install window. 5. The installer will confirm that you have the appropriate Mac OS X Server installer disc mounted. 6. Follow the instructions presented in the installation window.

Base Mac OS 9 Retrospect Installations

Monday, September 22nd, 2003



2. Open box avoiding damage to the box and what is inside.

3. Write serial number on checklist and enter into asset tracking system

4. Place 1 serial number sticker on box and 1 on CD.

5. Place CD in Computer and if not auto-started, select manually.

6. Select Easy Install but change Install location: Install in the Application Folder.
Browse the popup menu for the folder.

7. Select Install

9. If Installer does not restart after 2 minutes, then force restart of machine.

10. Select Retrospect icon. Press Command & I on keyboard.

11. Create an Alias on the Desktop. Make sure the original Retrospect icon
remains in the application directory.

12. Select Memory from Pop-up menu.
A. Select minimum size to 2x’s the preferred size.
B. Change the preferred size to 2x’s the new minimum size.
C. Do not lock. Close the dialog box.

13. Open Retrospect for the first time.

14. Registration screen should come up.
A. Make the name and organization to be the Company Name.
B. Select OK then Select Register Now.
C. Request Registration information from client. This can be done by printing
the registration form and having them complete it or having them dictate
the information while you type.
D. After the Registration process, you should be at the main Retrospect directory.

15. Select Configure and click device.
A. Confirm drive is seen
B. If seen, then close the window. If not, then trouble-shoot

16. Select Automate then click Scripts
A. Click New then click No then select OK.
B. Enter Monday as the name of the new script (use Title Case).
C. Select OK; Click on bottom besides sources.
D. Volume Selection – Select appropriate backup location based on
predetermined strategy. Select OK
E. Select Destination
F. Bottom of Pop-up is name; put MONDAY in all CAPS.
G. Set security based on strategy.
H. Set backup set type to tape. Click New.
I. Choose the Retrospect folder. Select Save.
J. Redo for Monday through Thursday. Offsite A& B tape.