Posts Tagged ‘snmp’

Create A Package To Enable SNMP On OS X

Friday, November 16th, 2012

Building on the Tech Journal post “Enable SNMP On Multiple Mac Workstations Using A Script“, let’s take the snmpd.conf file and put it into an Apple Installer package for easier deployment.

Most any packaging tool for Mac OS X, such as Apple’s PackageMaker, JAMF Software’s Composer, Absolute Software’s InstallEase or Stéphane Sudre’s Iceberg, can create a simple package combining a couple of scripts with a payload file. For this example, the payload will be the snmpd.conf file itself and the scripts will be preflight and postflight scripts to protect existing data and start the SNMP service.

First, create the snmpd.conf file using the instructions in the Create the snmpd.conf file section from the prior post.

Next, create the preflight and postflight scripts using a plain text editor such as or Save each script as “preflight” or “postflight” without any file extensions.

Preflight script

The preflight script stops the SNMP service if it’s running and renames any existing /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.conf file to snmpd.bak followed by a unique date and time.

# Preflight

# Stop the SNMP service if it's running
/bin/launchctl list | /usr/bin/grep
if [ $? = 0 ] ; then
     /bin/launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
     /usr/bin/logger SNMP service stopped. # Appears in /private/var/log/system.log

# Rename the snmpd.conf file if it exists
if [ -f /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.conf ] ; then
     /bin/mv /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.conf /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.bak$( /bin/date "+%Y%m%d%H%M%S" )

exit 0

Postflight script

The postflight script starts the SNMP service

# Postflight

# Start the SNMP service if it's running
/bin/launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
if [ $? = 0 ] ; then
     /usr/bin/logger SNMP service started. # Appears in /private/var/log/system.log

exit 0

The elements are ready to add to the packaging application. Using Iceberg as an example, create a new new project and select Package from the Core Templates. Name the project “Enable SNMP” and select a location to store the project files such as ~/Iceberg. Copy the snmpd.conf file and preflight and postflight scripts to the ~/Iceberg/Enable SNMP folder for easier access.

Iceberg folder

Edit any information in the Settings pane to add clarity or leave the defaults automatically populated.


Select the Scripts pane and drag the preflight and postflight scripts into the Installation Scripts window being sure to match the preflight script to the preflight script file and the postflight script to the postflight script file.


Select the Files pane. Right-click the top-level root folder in the files list and select New Folder. Name this new folder “usr”. It should appear at the same level as the Applications, Library and System folders. Continue creating new folders until the /usr/share/snmp folder hierarchy is complete. Then drag in the snmpd.conf file so that it falls under the snmp folder.

Select Archive menu –> Show Info to display each folder’s ownership and permissions. Adjust ownership of the new folders and the snmpd.conf file to owner:root and group:wheel. Adjust permissions to 755 for folders and 644 for the file (see screenshot).


The package is ready. Select Build menu –> Build to create the package. Iceberg places new packages into the project folder: ~/Iceberg/Enable SNMP/build/Enable SNMP.pkg.

Copy the newly created package to a test machine and double-click to run it. Verify that everything worked correctly by running the snmpget command:

snmpget -c talkingmoose-read localhost system.sysDescr.0

It should return something like:

SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Darwin TMI 12.2.0 Darwin Kernel Version 12.2.0: Sat Aug 25 00:48:52 PDT 2012; root:xnu-2050.18.24~1/RELEASE_X86_64 x86_64

When satisfied the installer works correctly use a deployment tool such as Apple Remote Desktop, Casper or munki to distribute the package to Mac workstations.

Enable SNMP On Multiple Mac Workstations Using A Script

Monday, November 12th, 2012

SNMP can be a valuable tool for monitoring the health of unattended Mac workstations acting as a farm to process information for remote users. If the health of a farm member degrades because its hard drive gets full or a process gets stuck then SNMP can send traps to a Network Management Station to alert the administrator.

Before SNMP will return any useful information an administrator must configure the Mac using the snmpconf command. By default this command runs interactively and prompts him for basic information to create the /usr/share/snmp/snmpd.conf file. However, he can use this file to script the same configuration for other machines without interaction. The script can also run a simple launchd command afterward to start the snmp service.

Create the snmpd.conf file

Creating the snmpd.conf file is as simple as running a command in the Terminal and answering a few questions.

  1. Launch the Terminal application found in /Applications/Utilities.
  2. The Terminal defaults to the current user’s home folder. Verify this using the pwd command. This is where the snmpconf command will create the snmpd.conf file.
  3. Enter snmpconf in the Terminal and press return.
  4. This begins a series of simple questions. The first question is:

    The following installed configuration files were found:

    1: /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf

    Would you like me to read them in? Their content will be merged with the output files created by this session.

    Valid answer examples: “all”, “none”,”3″,”1,2,5″

    Read in which (default = all):

    Press return to accept the default answer “all”.

  5. The next question is:

    I can create the following types of configuration files for you.
    Select the file type you wish to create:
    (you can create more than one as you run this program)

    1: snmpd.conf
    2: snmptrapd.conf
    3: snmp.conf

    Other options: quit

    Select File:

    Enter 1 to choose to create the snmpd.conf file.

  6. Next, choose 1 for Access Control Setup. This will set the community name for both read/write as well as read access. For monitoring purposes an administrator should configure read-only communities such as talkingmoose-read. Set the community name for both SNMPv3 read-only user as well as SNMPv1/SNMPv2 read-only access community name. These may be the same name.
  7. When the read-only communities are set then type finished to exit the access control setup and proceed to the rest of the sections.

Some questions will be for more advanced snmp settings, which some administrators will want to partially or fully customize. For basic snmp functionality either accept the defaults or don’t answer the questions. At minimum, though, complete the Access Control Setup and System Information Setup sections.

After answering the questions and returning to the top level section type quit to complete creating the snmpd.conf file. The snmpconf command places this file in the current working directory in Terminal.

Load snmpd.conf onto another Mac

Loading these settings on another machine requires the same snmpconf command but with some instructions to use the newly created file. Do the following:

  1. Copy the snmpd.conf file to the new machine.
  2. Run the following command on the new machine:sudo snmpconf -R /path/to/snmpd.conf -a -f -i snmpd.conf

This snmpconf command takes the supplied snmpd.conf file (-R /path/to/snmpd.conf) to quietly configure a new one (-a) overwriting anything already configured (-f) and places it in the correct location (-i), which is /usr/share/snmp/.

Start SNMP

After the settings are loaded and a newly created snmpd.conf file exists in /usr/share/snmp/, start the SNMP service:

sudo launchctl load -w

Test using snmpwalk

To verify the settings are applied correctly use the snmpwalk command to read SNMP data from the Mac using the read-only user or community name created when completing the Access Control Setup section earlier:

snmpwalk -v1 -c talkingmoose-read localhost

This should return a lengthy amount of information that begins with something like:

SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Darwin TMServer.local 10.8.0 Darwin Kernel Version 10.8.0: Tue Jun 7 16:33:36 PDT 2011; root:xnu-1504.15.3~1/RELEASE_I386 i386
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.255
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (751563) 2:05:15.63
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: "William Smith"
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: TMServer.local
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: "Saint Paul"
SNMPv2-MIB::sysServices.0 = INTEGER: 12


The most efficient deployment method for current and future Mac farm machines is an Apple Installer package. Add the snmpd.conf file as a resource file to the package and add a postflight script to load the file and start the SNMP service.

Using Nagios NIBs with ESX

Thursday, March 22nd, 2012

What is a MIB

A MIB is a Management Information Base. It is an index based upon a network standard that categorizes data for a specific device so that SNMP servers can read the data.

Where to Obtain VMware vSphere MIBs

VMware MIBs are specific to VMware Version, you can try to use the ESX MIBs for ESXi. They can be downloaded from Click on VMware vSphere > find the version of ESX that you are running under “Other versions of VMware vSphere” (the latest version will be the page that you’re on). Click on “Drivers & Tools”. Then click on “VMware vSphere x SNMP MIBs” where “x” is your version.

How to add VMware vSphere MIBs into Nagios

  • Download the VMware vSphere MIBs from
  • Copy the MIB files to /usr/share/snmp/mibs/
  • Run check_snmp -m ALL so it detects the new MIBs

Editing snmpd.conf and starting snmpd on ESX

  • Stop snmpd: service snmpd stop
  • Backup snmp.xml: cp /etc/vmware/snmp.xml /etc/vmware/snmp.xml.old
  • Edit snmp.xml with your favorite CLI text editor to have the following:


  • Backup snmpd.conf: cp /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf.old
  • Use your favorite CLI text editor and edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
  • Erase everything in it.
  • Add in the following and save it:

load  99 99 99
syslocation ServerRoom
syscontact  “ESX Administrator”
rocommunity  public
view systemview included .
proxy -v 1 -c public .

  • Change “syslocation” and “syscontact” to whatever you want
  • Save your work
  • Configure snmpd to autostart: chkconfig snmpd on
  • Allow SNMP through firewall: esxcfg-firewall –e snmpd
  • Start the SNMP daemon: service snmpd start
  • Restart the mgmt-vmware service: service mgmt-vmware restart

Determining OID

OID’s are MIB specific variables that you can instruct an SNMP server monitor to look for. These variables can be determined by reading the MIBs. One tool that assists with doing this is MIB Browser by iReasoning Networks MIB Browser can run on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux/UNIX. To obtain the appropriate OID’s:

  • Load the MIBs in MIB Browser by going to File > Load Mibs
  • Manually comb through to find the OID you want (it will be connected to a string that will be similar to wording used in VSphere).


  • SNMP MIBs was downloaded from for ESX 4.1
  • Loaded MIB for VMWARE-RESOURCES-MIB into MIB Browser
  • Searched for “Mem” (Edit > Find in MIB Tree), found “vmwMemAvail”, the OID for this is . (use the OID shown in the dropdown that is near the menu in the MIB Browser – it will show the full OID which will sometimes include a “0″ at the end that the OID listed towards the bottom of the window will not)
  • Add OID into remotehost.cfg (or linux config file) file in Nagios

define service{
use             generic-service ; Inherit values from a template
host_name           ESX4_1
service_description  Memory Available
check_command       check_snmp!-C public -o . -m all

host_name: the name of the device (whatever you want to call it)
service_description: the name of the service you are monitoring (whatever you want to call it)
check_command: -C is to define the community SNMP string, -o is to define the OID to read, -m is to define which MIB files to load – to be more specific, for this example you can narrow “-m all” to “-m VMWARE-RESOURCES-MIB.MIB”

Once you’ve done the above you should be able to monitor “Memory Available” for ESX through Nagios.  Repeat the procedure, changing steps where applicable for the specific OID you want to monitor.  If you have questions, or need assistance, please contact 318, Inc. at 1-877-318-1318.

Monitoring Xsan with Nagios and SNMP

Monday, December 12th, 2011

Monitoring a system or device using SNMP (a SonicWALL, for instance) is simple enough, provided you have the right MIB. XSNMP is an Open Source project that provides a simple Preference Pane to manage SNMP on OS X, and it also includes an MIB developed by LithiumCorp. This MIB provides OS X’s SNMP agent to gather and categorize information relating specifically to Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, and Xsan.

XSNMP-MIB can be downloaded from GitHub, or directly from Lithium.

Download the XSNMP-MIB.txt file and put it in /usr/share/snmp/mibs. You can verify that the MIB is loaded by running snmpwalk on the system, specifying the XSNMP Version OID. If snmpwalk returns the version, the MIB is installed correctly. If it returns an error about an “Unknown Object Identifier”, then the MIB isn’t installed in the right spot.

bash$ snmpwalk -c public -v 1 my.server.address XSNMP-MIB::xsnmpVersion
XSNMP-MIB::xsnmpVersion.0 = Gauge32: 1

The fact that the MIB was developed by Lithium doesn’t stop us from using it with Nagios, though. You can define a Nagios service to gather the free space available on your Xsan volume by adding the following to a file called xsan_usage.cfg. Put the file in your Nagios config directory.

define service{
host_name xsan_controller
service_description Xsan Volume Free Space
check_command check_snmp!-C public -o xsanVolumeFreeMBytes.1 -m XSNMP-MIB

The host_name should match the Nagios host definition for your Xsan Controller. The service_description can be any arbitrary string that makes sense and describes the service.

The check_command definition is the actual command that’s run. The -C flag defines the SNMP community string, the -m flag defines which MIB should be loaded (you can use “-m all” to just load them all), and the -o flag defines which OID we should return. “xsanVolumeFreeMBytes.1″ should return the free space, in MB, of the first Xsan volume.

Using Nagios MIBs with a SonicWALL

Wednesday, November 23rd, 2011

MIB (short for Management Information Base), is an index based on a network standard that categorizes data for a specific device so SNMP servers can read the data. SonicWALL MIBs are specific to device AND firmware.  Each can be downloaded from (you will need to have an account to download).  Click on Downloads, Download Center and then find the firmware that you are running.  Then click on “SNMP MIBs” to download.

Once downloaded, copy the MIB files to /usr/share/snmp/mibs to prepare them for loading into NetSNMP. Then run check_snmp with a -m option followed by ALL so that Nagios will detect the new MIBs:
check_snmp -m ALL
Once complete, determine the OID. OID’s are MIB variables that instruct an SNMP server monitor to look for information on the device. These variables can be determined by reading the MIBs.  One tool that assists with doing this is MIB Browser by iReasoning Networks  MIB Browser can run on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux/UNIX.  To obtain the appropriate OID’s:
  1. Load the MIBs in MIB Browser by going to File > Load Mibs
  2. Manually comb through to find the OID you want (a string used in the SonicWALL Web Configuration).

To put this into use, let’s prepare an snmpwalk from a TZ100. First, download the SNMP MIBs from for a TZ100 running firmware version ( Then let’s load the MIB for SONICWALL-FIREWALL-IP-STATISTICS-MIB into MIB Browser. Searching for “CPU” (Edit -> Find in MIB Tree) shows sonicCurrentCPUUtil, the OID for this fact is . We used the OID shown in the drop-down near the menu in the MIB Browser. This shows the full OID, which sometimes includes a “0″ at the end (shown towards the bottom of the window). Next, add the OID into a switch.cfg file in nagios:

define service{
use                                       generic-service ; Inherit values from a template
host_name                       TZ100
service_description     CPU Utilization
check_command           check_snmp!-C public -o . -m all

These settings include the following:

  • host_name: the name of the device (whatever you want to call it)
  • service_description: the name of the service you are monitoring (whatever you want to call it)
  • check_command: -C is to define the community SNMP string, -o is to define the OID to read, -m is to define which MIB files to load – to be more specific, for this example you can narrow “-m all” to “-m SONICWALL-FIREWALL-IP-STATISTICS-MIB.MIB”

Overall, setting up Nagios to be able to leverage MIBs from 3rd party vendors is an easy task, if not tedious when there are a lot of settings you’d like to walk through with SNMP.

Provisioning TelePacific iNOC On A SonicWALL

Friday, January 7th, 2011

1. Login to SonicWALL

2. Check to see if SNMP is already in use on WAN IPs by checking under Network > Firewall.

ALERT: Enabling SNMP Management on the SonicWALL will cause issues with the SNMP firewall rules. You can ONLY have SNMP SonicWALL Management OR SNMP firewall port forwarding. Not both. This was confirmed with SonicWALL Tech Support.

3. Go to System > Administration

4. Scroll down and put a check mark for “Enable SNMP”

5. Click on Configure

6. Put in whatever you want for System Name, System Contact, System Location. You can leave Asset Number blank. Ask TPAC for their monitoring WAN IP and put that in the “Host 1″ field.

7. Go to Network > Interfaces

8. Click on the Configure icon for the Interface that you want monitored.

9. Put a check mark next to SNMP

10. Click OK

11. You can confirm SNMP is listening by using snmpwalk. On a Mac, the command can be:

snmpwalk -c private -v 2c “wanipaddress of SonicWALL”


snmpwalk -c private -v 1 “wanipaddress of SonicWALL”

The SonicWALL utilizes version 1 and 2c for SNMP.

Adding Windows Services Monitoring in Zenoss

Thursday, July 22nd, 2010

1. Under devices find the server
2. Go to Configuration Properties
3. Scroll down until you find zWinUser and zWinPassword, and enter in admin username and password.
4. Click on the first item under Components on the left hand side
5. Click on the “+” Sign
6. Click Add Win Service
7. Choose the service from the drop down menu.
8. Click on Service if status says “Unknown”
9. Find server under Display
10. Change Set Local value to Yes
11. Click SAVE (from light testing, this seems to only have to be done once per service).

Installing Zenoss

Wednesday, December 30th, 2009

To monitor a device over the WAN, there needs to be a 1 to 1 Firewall Rule. There needs to be a firewall rule, allowing SNMP traffic from the WAN to a device on the lan. For multiple devices, then each device will need a dedicated WAN IP with the firewall rule. SNMP runs on UDP on port 161

Install SNMP service in components will require I386 for .dll
Download and install additional SNMP dll files provided by SNMP Informant,
Once installed right click on SNMP click properties and go to the Agents tab:
Contact: (e.g.
Location: (e.g. 830 Colorado Ave. Santa Monica, CA)
Check all services below that
Move to next tab traps:
Community Name:(e.g. 318zenoss)
Click Add to list
Then click add and enter the Zenoss server address
Move to next tab Security:
Make sure send authentication trap is checked
Add community name 318zenoss read only
And check SNMP packets from any host
Click Apply and Ok

Restart the Service.

Add two firewall rules allow traffic from the Device (LAN) to the WAN zenoss address of the Zenoss Server

Next Add device in zenoss:
Log in as user
Click Add Device
Enter Device IP WAN IP Address for Device Name
SNMP Community: 318zenoss
Select the Server Class:
/Servers/Windows – Windows Server
/Servers/Darwin – Mac Server
/Servers/Unix – Linux/Unix Server

Add or select Location Path

Add Or Select Client Name as Location

Select Your Team As Group

When to Replace APC Batteries

Thursday, October 8th, 2009

All good networking server setups require a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) to keep the equipment going long enough to properly shutdown after a power outage has occurred.

What is sometimes neglected is to regularly check your battery to ensure that it’s holding a charge, should the time come when you have to use it.

This is done by connecting the UPS to the network or a Server, and then running the proper diagnostic testing on the battery. Often times the software or the controller will test the battery on it’s own interval, but without the software you may not notice the gradual changes that occur when the battery slowly is no longer holding as much as a charge, or is able to keep the system up, as long as it used to.

Once this occurs, it is time to replace your battery.

Here’s a scenario, you have recently been assigned a new client, and they already have a power structure in place. A week or two goes by. One of the UPSs lights are all green, but constantly blinking. What does this mean, and what do you do? Here’s a little guide you can follow:

Battery light is Red
The battery is no long holding a charge

The charge light is green, but blinking.
The battery is only able to keep the power going less than what it is supposed to. Default is usually 2 minutes.

If you see red on the battery, then it’s a no brainer, time to replace the battery.

Back to the scenario, if you see blinking green, it’s a little tricky. This doesn’t mean that the battery is necessarily dead, it just means that the controller is saying that the battery can’t hold power on it’s own for longer than 2 minutes. Here’s what you do:
1. Login to the APC monitoring software and perform a runtime calibration test
2. If after the calibration test the lights are still blinking – it’s time to get a new battery. Sometimes though, it will return back to normal after the run time calibration test (about 1 hr after). In which case, all it needed was a good kick in the pants.

How to get a new battery:
1. Write down the model number of the unit and also get the serial number (The exact model number is at the rear of the unit, or behind the face plate.)
2. Get the serial number of the unit (by the face plate).
3. Get the serial number of the battery (on the battery towards the face plate).
Note: On some APC UPSs you can remove the battery, while the UPS is still plugged in so as not to have to shutdown servers.
4. Call APC to see if the battery is under warranty. If not, it’s still recommended to buy a battery through APC since they give a warranty on them.

Replacing the battery:
Once you get the new battery, check to see if the battery is hot swappable. If it is, go ahead and replace it with the server still connected. After replacing the battery INITIATE A RUN TIME CALIBRATION TEST FROM THE APC MONITORING SOFTWARE. If you don’t, the time wont be calibrated on the APC and you may get false results, or the battery may run down a lot sooner than it should. If you can’t install the APC monitoring software, then you will need to:
1. Charge the battery until it is full on the front panel
2. Power down all of the servers, plug a CRT or another non critical item into the UPS and unplug the UPS from it’s power source. Allow it to run down, and then charge it again. Doing this will initiate a automatic built in run time calibration.

Once you’ve been at a client long enough you will get a feel for how long a battery lasts in a UPS. It’s recommend that you replace it around the time that you’ve noticed it tends to begin to deteriorate. If they were all installed around the same time, try to replace them all at the same time – because if one fails the others are probably soon to follow (especially if they’re the same model).

Adjusting Device Thresholds in Zenoss

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

By default, the Zenoss monitoring system tends to send extraneous warnings everyday. The thresholds for these warnings can be adjusted to create fewer, more pertinent warning messages. For example, MyXserve is set to send a warning when the Ethernet utilization on port en0 exceeds 75% of the maximum. That happens every day. Changing that threshold setting to 90% would result in fewer, more meaningful warnings. These are the steps to adjust a device threshold using COMPUTER as an example.

NOTE: Adjusting a Performance Template changes that template for EVERY DEVICE that uses it. Changing the ethernetCsmacd in this example from 75% to 90% will change the threshold to 90% for ALL DEVICES that use that template.

1. Look at the warning that was sent to an email address. For the COMPUTER example, here is the information:

Subject: [zenoss] COMPUTER threshold of high utilization exceeded: current value 1796033.47
Component: en0
Severity: Warning
Time: 2009/05/21 23:08:22.000
Message: Threshold of high utilization exceeded: current value 1796033.47

This tells you that the device sending the warning is MyXserve, the component having the issue is en0 which is the main Ethernet port, and that the threshold that was exceeded is the high utilization threshold.

2. Login to Zenoss. (There’s information on that in another Kbase article.)

3. In the Dashboard, click on the device in the Device Issues portal.

4. In the Device Status portal, click on the correct Component Type. In this example we click on ipInterface since we’re interested in the Ethernet port.

5. In the Interfaces portal, click on the correct interface. In this example, click on the en0 interface.

6. In the resulting window you will see the Status of the interface including some performance graphs. Click on the Templates tab.

7. Click on the correct Performance Template. You can find the correct one from its name or description. In this case, there’s only one and it’s named ethernetCsmacd.

8. In the Thresholds portal, click on the threshold that is listed in the warning. In this case, it’s the high utilization threshold.

9. The resulting window shows the settings for the high utilization threshold. There are several settings but we’re most interested in the Min Value and Max Value fields. There is nothing in the Min Value field and we’ll leave that as is. It may be used in other templates. The Max Value field contains a calculation for the number of bytes sent and received: (here.speed or 1e9) / 8 * .75. To adjust this from 75% of the maximum to 90% of the maximum change the .75 to .90 and click the Save button.

10. Back in the Performance Template window, you may have to change the description and clicked the Save button. This one said “Standard ethernet interface template with 75% utilization threshold” which I changed to “Standard ethernet interface template with 90% utilization threshold.”

At this point you can log out of Zenoss and keep an eye on any warnings your device may send for the next 24 hours.

Installing Lithium on Mac OS X

Thursday, November 1st, 2007

Installing Lithium Core 4.9.0 Make sure the system is not currently a web server and port 80 is available. Download the Lithium 4.9.0 package. Double-click on the Core 4.9.0 Installer. Click Continue through the license agreement screens. Choose the packages to install and click on Continue. Choose the location to install the Lithium Core application and click on Install. Enter the credentials of an administrator and Click OK. When the installer is complete, click on the Close button. Open Lithium Core Admin from the /Applications folder. Click Next and enter the name of the client for whom you are installing Lithium. Click Next and enter a new administrative username and password for accessing Lithium. Click Next and you will be placed into the database configuration screen. Unless you are using PostgreSQL on another host, do not modify these settings. Click Next and double-check the settings. If they look good then click on the Finish button and enter administrative credentials to commit the changes. When you open Lithium Console from the /Applications folder for the first time you will be asked whether you would like to check for updates each time. Click Yes. You have now installed Lithium and can move on to adding hosts to be monitored.